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Scientific Papers Session III: Physiologic Basis of Swallowing

 Thursday, March 7 ,2019

1:45-3:15 p.m.

 Moderators:

Kulwinder Dua, MD, FRCP(E), FRCP(L), FACP, FASGE


 

Respiratory (de)coupling in Healthy Swallows: Head Position Effect

Gayathri Krishnan

Earlier studies have established differences in pharyngeal structure and swallow dynamics with a chin-down posture. These changes may influence the measures of respiratory de-coupling but have not been a subject of scientific research till date.

 

Characterization and Mechanism of Esophago-Esophageal Contractile Reflex of Striated Muscle Esophagus

Ivan Lang

Prior studies have characterized esophago-esophageal reflexes within the smooth muscle esophagus, but not the striated muscle esophagus. The aim of this study was to characterize the esophago-esophageal contractile reflex (EECR) of the striated muscle esophagus and determine its mechanism of initiation.

 

The Association Between Tongue Pressures and Anthropometric Measures, Physical Function and Muscle Strength

Sonja Molfenter

Age-related dysphagia is often attributed to sarcopenia, which is typically captured through reduced maximal isometric tongue pressures. In reality, swallowing is a sub-maximal task and sarcopenia is multifactorial. We explored the relationships between tongue pressures (maximal, swallowing) and anthropometric, physical function, and muscle strength measures.

 

Experimental and Computational Modeling of Bolus Fragmentation

Mark Nicosia

Loss of liquid bolus control during swallowing, and the resulting split of the bolus into multiple fragments, provides a significant risk for bolus misdirection and aspiration. To date, computational and experimental models of oropharyngeal fluid mechanics have generally considered the transport of a cohesive bolus. The purpose of this work was to develop an experimental apparatus to promote bolus splitting and to model this device using computational fluid mechanics. We study the tendency of a bolus to fragment as well as the predictive accuracy of a numerical model of bolus control.

 

Parents’ Experiences of Feeding, Swallowing, and Nutrition in Children Receiving Palliative Care

Heather Pyke

Parents caring for children receiving palliative care due to life-threatening illnesses face tremendous stressors, including providing nutrition to their child. Very little is known about this experience or how parents manage nutritional needs amidst the uncertainty of the illness. The purpose of this study was to explore parents’ experiences, including strategies employed to cope with stressors and manage the feeding, swallowing, and nutrition of their children.

 

Swallowing Interdisciplinary Psychophysics (SIP): How Psychophysics Reveals a Safety Bias in Bolus Volume Difference Detection

Alycia Rivet

Studies show that increases in bolus volume lead to increases in both airway protection and UES opening durations. It is assumed that sensory information in the oral cavity is responsible for this swallow safety modulation. However, it is unknown whether volume increases in the oral cavity are accurately detected by healthy adults. Psychophysics aims to describe relationships between physical stimuli and perceived experience. Our study uses psychophysics to test just noticeable differences (JND) of water volume changes among 36 healthy adults.

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