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Scientific Papers Session IV: Neurogenic Dysphagia

 Thursday, March 7 ,2019

3:30-5:00 p.m.

 Moderators:

Hanneke Kalf, PhD


 

Predictors of Residue, Penetration, and Aspiration in Parkinson’s Disease

James Curtis

The presence of residue, penetration, and aspiration is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and increases the risk of developing serious medical consequences including dehydration, malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and death. Yet, in PD, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie these impairments. Therefore, in this study, we: 1) assessed the effects of Parkinson’s disease severity on changes in swallowing kinematics, residue, penetration, and aspiration; and 2) determined which combination of spatial-temporal swallowing kinematics influenced residue, penetration, and aspiration the most.

 

Effects of Verbal Cueing and Bolus Holding on Respiratory Swallow Coordination in Parkinson’s Disease

James Curtis

Typical respiratory-swallow coordination (RSC) is characterized by exhaling before and after swallowing. Deviations from this have been linked with increased risk of deficits in swallowing safety in various populations including Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Additionally, while swallowing is known to be affected by verbal cueing and bolus holding, the influence of these variables on RSC remains largely understudied. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of bolus holding and verbal cueing on RSC in PD.

 

Pharyngeal Volumetric Changes in Parkinson’s Disease and its Impact on Swallowing

James Curtis

Pharyngeal lumen size is thought to increase as a consequence of muscle atrophy. Recent work in healthy older adults (HOA) found that pharyngeal lumen volume increased as a function of normal aging, and contributed to reduced pharyngeal constriction and swallowing efficiency. However, little is known about the effects of Parkinson’s disease (PD) on pharyngeal volume. In this study, we compared pharyngeal volumetric changes in PD to HOA and determined the effects of these volumetric changes on swallowing kinematics, swallowing safety, and swallowing efficiency.

 

Tongue Pressure Variability in Persons with Parkinson’s Disease Compared to Healthy Older Adults

Jocelyn Jenks

Intertrial variability in motor performance of both axial and pharyngeal muscles has shown to differentiate persons with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PwPD) from healthy older adults. It is unknown if pressures generated by the tongue demonstrate similar patterns. The present investigation explored intertrial variability in peak anterior tongue pressure generated during both maximum isometric and swallowing tasks for PwPD compared to healthy adults.

 

The Effect of Dual Tasking on Cough Reflex Sensitivity in People with Parkinson’s Disease

Sarah Perry

Reflex cough is an essential airway protective mechanism. Recent evidence suggests that increasing cognitive demands may reduce reflex cough sensitivity. This may have implications for populations who present with cognitive decline, impaired dual tasking, and/or airway invasion during swallowing. We present findings from a study testing the effects of performing concurrent cognitive and coughing tasks via a dual task paradigm on measures of reflex cough in adults with Parkinson’s disease, and draw comparisons to previous work in healthy adults.

 

Differences in Swallowing and Cough Function in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Parkinson’s Disease

Sarah Perry

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurological disease affecting the corticobulbar/corticospinal tracts. In the early disease stages, PSP presents similarly to Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is often misdiagnosed as PD. However, symptoms usually become more severe than PD over time. Despite the high incidence of swallowing and respiratory-related complications in PSP, little is known about the specific changes to bulbar and respiratory strength, including muscle strength and functional measures of swallowing and cough. The aim of this study was to compare PSP and PD on a range of swallowing and cough-related measures.

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